An interesting collection of stories

Going Deep: Spend an Afternoon with These Lengthy Stories – http://wp.me/p3Ca1O-3Q4

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The hidden code in literature : Part 1


A hidden code rests  within the most famous literature pieces of all time respective of the language, time & author of these timeless cry for better sleep. Of course, from this conspirary spread across timelines, emerged the conspirator and the man who we responsible for spreading awareness  about this master conspirator was George Kingsley Zipf and name of conspirator is Zipf’s law.

Distribution of words (Rank of each word w.r.t its frequency and No. of times each word has been used always form a distinctive pattern)
The theory allows us to swim deep into fractals, self-organisation and other self-intelligent control systems in mathematical and real world. In simple words, let me try to explain this amazing pattern – Lets take any book and find out the most used words in the book.

Suppose the words- the, test and of appears more than any words and the number of times each word appears is found to be x, y and z. Then Zipf’s law suggests that 


The second most used word might have appeared  1/2 times the most used word in this distribution.Thus 


This will be true for any word in the distribution and for any language including the non-natural languages. 

Please do your own experiment to find out whether this is true or not. Eventhough I explained Zipf’s law in simple terms, it is vastly adaptive in various scientific realms and applications including the distribution of cities etc. 

In the next part, we will deal with more of Zipf’s law in detail but before that do your own experiment and cherish your procrastination with creative time passes.

The floating ‘worms’ in our eyes

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It is quite common to observe that certain worm like beings are floating in front of our eyes when we look towards a bright light or blue sky.They appear to move as our eyes move and seem to move away when we try to look at them directly. They do not follow our eye movements, and usually float when our eyes stop moving.

Do you know what they are? They are most likely shadows of debris (group of cells,fractured cells etc) floating in Vitreous humour casted onto the retina of our eye.With aging the collagen (protein fibres) in Vitreous humour contracts,and strands of these contracted fibres may cast shadows on Retina.Thus floaters are natural indicators of proper aging in human beings.

Note: Vitreous humour is a clear, jelly-like substance that fills the space in the middle of the eyeball.Retina is the light sensitive tissue lining on the back of our eye (similar to photographic film in camera).

Any trouble to vision?

Mostly we don’t see these floaters as with time,brain begins to ignore these floater avoiding any impact on our vision.

In rare cases,a sudden increase in floaters along with light flashes could indicate a retinal detachment. A retinal detachment occurs when any part of the retina is peeled off or pulled from its normal position.

BLUE FIELD ENTOPTIC PHENOMENON

If we are seeing rapidly moving white heads with black tail while looking at the background of vast and clear blue sky,then they are not floaters.

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When a WBC (white blood cell) will travel through capillaries,they have to squeeze in due to their large size and the immediate red blood cells (RBC) will line up behind these WBCs in a cluttered group.RBCs will absorb blue light whereas WBCs will allow the light to pass through thus forming the dark tail and bright head respectively.

The path traversed is actually the path of blood capillaries in our eye.Thus using the technique called blue field entoptoscopy, retinal blood flow and capillary network is traced back.

The smallest of phenomenon or simplest aspects in physics thus have very interesting impact on our day to day life.I hope next time,when you look into the blue sky,a smile will spread in your lips and some thoughts will wander in your brains.

The myth of Review aggregators:IMDb,Rotten Tomatoes..

It was with utmost desperation and fear that I decided to see X-Men: Apocalypse.Exceeding the expectations,the film was an entertaining tale as well as a grandeur reinterpretation and introduction of major characters.I even got to see the cameo of Stan Lee with his wife.A fter the conclusion of film,I was confused by the reviews that drove me to be in prejudice.Look thhe below statistics:

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By Rotten tomatoes standards,Apocalypse is supposed to be as twisted and sub-par as Ben Affleck’s Daredevil film.Even BvS:Dawn of Justice is supposed to be a complete disaster even worse than Ben Affleck’s Daredevil film.The truth is that Apocalypse and BvS is way better than the Daredevil flick.Why is this incredible lack of clarity in our reviews aggregators?

Continue reading “The myth of Review aggregators:IMDb,Rotten Tomatoes..”

A mathematician goes for a walk

Bertrand Russell (arguably, one of the most influential scientist, philosopher intellectual who ever lived)calls his statements as “immeasurably subtle and profound”.

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Zeno of Elea, the pre-Socrates natural philosopher questions the very fundamentals of our knowledge while he was walking to his favourite destination.

Suppose Zeno started from A and set his destination towards B.The distance between them is “x” km.

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After some time ‘T1’ ,he covered half of total distance.

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Then after ‘T2’,suppose he covered half of the remaining distance.

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Following the pattern,we feel that he will never reach the destination B since the distance between them can be covered only with infinite time.

This is called Zeno’s dichotomy paradox.

Solution

Sum of infinite series of finite elements is not always infinite.For example,consider the below square:

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The area of square will always be ‘x*x’ and length of the side will always be ‘x’ inspite of the division of side into infinite pieces.The same applies to the paradox thereby clearly removing the contradiction that appear before our untrained and unassuming eyes.There are several versions for this paradox but in its essence,they all remain the same.

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Thus when a mathematician goes for walk,all hell breaks loose leading to a clear understanding of infinite and finite.Infinity is one of the most interesting ideas/notion which we all assume to understand but barely sees the tip of iceberg.Forgive us Cantor for declaring that you are mad.

The era of AI:’Let the Turing test begin’

When you have fever and no other test found anything suspicious then doctors suggest the Turing test. No,it was a incompetent and unwated joke. Turing test was suggested by British scientist Alan Turing in 1950 inorder to check whether an artificial intelligence can actually replace human beings in its entirety including behaviour and communication patterns.

The “standard interpretation” of the Turing Test, in which an interrogator, is given the task of trying to determine which unseen player is a computer and which is a human. The interrogator is limited to using the responses to written questions to make the determination.

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Important perspectives
1. Turing test tries to define thinking process itself in new light atleast exploring the limits of understanding of the capability called thinking.
2. There were several instances where chatbots or robots actually oriented themselves onto a particular pattern and fooled interrogators towards passing the turing test.Examples are PARRY,ELIZA and most winners of Loebner prize.

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3. The Turing test is neither a universal test to determine nor benchmark artificial intelligence. It is just a perspective with which aritifical intelligences are checked with respect to humanity.
4. There are different versions and expansions of Turing test available.One of them called Reverse Turing test lead to captcha which is extensively used for authentication in web pages.
5. The question whether the interrogator should see the players is another matter of debate among the scientists and philosophers.

The existence of Turing test is in reality a question to human kind regarding the very fundamental understanding of intelligence,thought process and existence.The expansions on Turing test point out the fact that the questionnaire we keep to ourselves are more deep and elaborate than we believe.